Adding to the voluminous case law interpreting DGCL Section 220 that has been highlighted over the last 14 years on these pages, the recent Delaware Court of Chancery decision in Kosinski v. GGP Inc., C.A. No. 2018-0540-KSJM (Del. Ch. Aug. 28, 2019), is notable for its useful and thorough recitation of the basic requirements of a Section 220 demand and the clarity of reasoning on which it relies to reject the typical defenses presented at trial “on a paper record.”
These short highlights presume that the reader is familiar with the basic prerequisites for a successful Section 220 demand and typical challenges to a Section 220 demand. This opinion is worthwhile reading, even for veterans of Section 220 battles, due to its lucid recitation of not only the basics, but also the nuances that most Section 220 litigation centers on. Hundreds of Section 220 decisions have been featured on these pages, so at this point I only highlight those rulings on Section 220 that, in my view, offer something more than the average fare.
Brief Overview of the Case:
A Section 220 demand was made in this case to investigate possible wrongdoing in connection with a merger. The company argued that the plaintiff was not entitled to inspect books because: (1) the stated purposes for the inspection were not those of the actual plaintiff/stockholder; and (2) the company argued that the stockholder lacked a credible basis for investigating possible wrongdoing.The most useful way to highlight the memorable passages from this pithy opinion would be to provide bullet points that would allow readers to determine if they would find it helpful to read the whole opinion.
Basics of § 220:
- The court explained that under DGCL Section 220 a stockholder is entitled to inspect the books and records of a company if she demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence that: (1) she is a stockholder of the company; (2) she has made a written demand on the company that complies with the statutory requirements; and (3) she has a proper purpose for making the demand. Once a stockholder meets those 3 requirements, she also must establish another prerequisite: (4) to establish that each category of the books and records requested is essential and sufficient to the stated purpose.
- In addition to those 4 requirements, there are additional nuances that must be addressed.
- The nuances that must be addressed to successfully repel defenses to a Section 220 demand include a rebuttal to a frequent defense by a company that the stated purpose, which might be a well-recognized proper purpose, is “not the actual purpose for the demand.”
- The court distinguished the recent decision in Wilkinson v. A. Schulman Inc., 2017 WL5289553, at * 2 (Del. Ch. Nov. 13, 2017), highlighted on these pages, because the facts of the instant case established that the stockholder himself was the actual motivating force behind the demand and he was not merely serving as a puppet for his lawyers.
- A welcome and refreshing acknowledgement from the court in this case was provided in a footnote where the court observed that Section 220 jurisprudence in Delaware is both complex and sprawling. See footnote 67.
Proper Purposes – More Nuances:
- The court defined a proper purpose as one that “reasonably relates to the stockholder’s interest as a stockholder.” See footnotes 72 and accompanying text. The stockholder has the burden of proof to demonstrate that proper purpose by a preponderance of the evidence.
- The court explained that although it is a proper purpose to investigate mismanagement, in order to prevail on that basis, a stockholder must “present some evidence that establishes a credible basis from which the Court of Chancery could infer there were legitimate issues of possible waste, mismanagement or wrongdoing that warrant further investigation.” See footnote 75.
- The court explained that the credible basis standard is the lowest possible burden of proof and requires a plaintiff to demonstrate “only some evidence of possible mismanagement or wrongdoing to warrant further investigation.” See footnote 77.
- The court explained that the “threshold may be satisfied by a credible showing, through documents, logic, testimony or otherwise, that there are legitimate issues of wrongdoing.” See footnote 79.
- An important observation by the court in this decision was in connection with the interface between a failure of a company in connection with a merger to satisfy the trigger for the business judgment standard of review announced in Kahn v. M & F Worldwide Corp., 88 A.3d 635 (Del. 2014)(hereinafter MFW). Namely, the court noted that its decision in the instant case “merely concludes that the absence of MFW procedural protections might contribute to a credible basis.”
- That basis for the court’s finding, of a credible basis is an important contribution to Section 220 jurisprudence.
- The court also noted that a recognized proper purpose under Section 220 is to investigate questions of director disinterestedness and independence, such as uncovering cronyism in the process of nominating directors. See footnotes 113 to 114 and accompanying text.
- The court also recognized the well-established case law that regards valuation of one’s shares as a proper purpose for the inspection of books and records. See footnote 118.